Milk is most intensively produced by a cow, as a rule, in the first months after an otel; during this period animals razdaivatsya most quicker and show the maximum efficiency., at once after an otel it is necessary to provide a cow with food to support sekretorny function of a mammary gland at the high level. The foundation for a uniform lactation during all subsequent period will be as a result laid. In the first days after an otel the cow is fed with generally good cereal and bean hay, and in summertime give green top dressing. It is recommended to give the talker from bran or porridge. Gradually by the end of the first decade the diet is brought to full norm.
For young growth it is necessary to create favorable conditions of keeping: in calf houses and on vygulny platforms to maintain purity, not to allow density of animals and drafts in rooms. Air in calf houses has to be dry, pure, its temperature should not change sharply.
If there was a fertilization, on a place of a rupture of the ripened follicle in an ovary the so-called yellow body — an endocrine gland is formed. The yellow body excretes in blood a hormone a progesterone which slows down maturing of other follicles in an ovary, and also a techka and an ovulation. The yellow body appears only for pregnancy. By its end it resolves.
Only spermatozoa of animals of the same look or to it get into an ovum. Alien spermatozoa cannot get in an ovum; though, in some experiences it also occurred, but the germ perished in the first stages of crushing of egg.
Diets have to be tasty and various on an of the forages entered into them; thus the lack of any nutrients of one forage is compensated by their surplus in other. It is also important to pay attention to profitability of diets and them generally from the forages made in the economy. It is necessary to consider also influence of forages on an animal organism: for example, forages affect digestion zakreplyayushche, and juicy forages and wheat bran — poslablyayushche.
Sperm or eyakulyaty call the liquid consisting of spermatozoa and a secret of additional glands; about 15% of its volume fall to the share of spermatozoa at a bull. The amount of sperm allocated by a bull for one cage makes 3 — 6 ml at the contents in 1 ml of its 1 — 2 billion spermatozoa.
Distinguish two periods of cultivation of young growth on time: within the first 5 — 6 months and subsequent postdairy (vegetable). During the first period of calfs of dairy breeds and breeds of efficiency grow up or at a vypaivaniye to them milk from special drinking bowls, or under cows wet nurses. The bezotjemny way of their contents under mothers is widespread in meat cattle breeding.
Telok accept from surrounding farms at the age of 10 — 20 days, grow up to sluchny age (16 — 18 month, inseminate and at 5 — 6-month stylishness or after an otel and 3-month check on dairy efficiency. Animals are provided with sterns. Give whole milk, the liquid bourgeois from a flour, the skim milk and compound feed enriched with vitamins macro - and microcells, good rough forages. Contain a telok to 3-meyosyachny age in individual cages with slot-hole floors, and groups without leash in sections on slot-hole floors without laying.
These norms are designed for full-age animals of average fatness. To cows after the first and second otel and an animal below average fatness they should be increased on 1 — 2 fodder per day at the contents in 1 fodder unit of 100 — 110 g of a perevarimy protein, 7 — 10 g of calcium, 5 — 6 g of phosphorus and 40 — 50 mg of carotene.
In a number of farms the young growth then is put on intensive sagination, 5 — 6 months last. Finish sagination at the age of 14 — 15 with a live weight of 350 — 400 kg. In the same place, where intensive sagination of young growth is not carried out, it leave to winter; carry out to the next summer on pastures, and hand over animals on meat with a live weight of 450 — 500 kg in the fall. It is important that the young growth was in economy one winter and two summer periods, but not on the contrary.
Cultivation repair a telok in the specialized enterprises. Due to transfer of dairy cattle breeding to an industrial basis there was a need of creation of the enterprises for cultivation repair a telok. Such economy transfers animals then to dairy complexes for replenishment of the main herd.