English G9 U4l2 How To Write A Philosophy Essay

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Development of a monad happens according to the principle of a continuity. Representations, being at the same monad at different times and at different monads at the same time unequal and possessing different degree of clarity, gradually become more and more distinct and full.

However the highest point in a chain of the progressing monads is not people, but also not beings, more perfect, than the person. And whether there is this point in general? Or it is regulatory, but objectively just not existing purpose of aspirations? As the target reason - objective or regulatory - this terminal point would appear at the same time and final "spring" of evolution of any monad ordering and coordinating its activity with activity of all other monads.

Between so-called inanimate nature and live there is a continuous communication through a chain of posredstvuyushchy links, i.e. intermediate beings. Here the principle of a continuity of a method of Leibniz comes into force. Steps of transition are and in the organic nature - between plants and animals and people.

The criticism to which the methodology and world outlook system of Platon from mathematicians were exposed, at all the importance did not mention bases of the idealistic concept. For replacement with more productive system developed by Platon of mathematics methodology it was necessary to subject to critical analysis its doctrine about ideas, the main sections of its philosophy and as a result of it = its view on mathematics. This mission fell to the pupil Platon's lot - Aristotle.

Similarity of programs of all monads is expressed and in a community of tendencies of development of their emotional life. The informative processes which are made in them are internally connected with the desires making as if their other party. In process of strengthening of informative activity of monads also their desires which in turn become a source of further progress of monads, their orientations to transition to more and more high, i.e. perfect states increase. Monads "passionately" aspire to this purpose, they are united in it by the teleology, general on the contents, though it always in a different measure is realized by different monads, and the hierarchy on degrees of perfection takes place also from the point of view of extent of realization of the general for all of them the purpose.

How Leibniz understood internal development of monads? Each of them leads more or less intensive life which can be explained again by analogy with mental life of people: feelings, contemplation, representation, consciousness - here its steps. Monads are as if two-faced: the aspiration and perception is the two parties of their life. Self-development of each monad is its transition to more and more high steps of consciousness that coincides with progress of its knowledge. Subsequently this idea of Leibniz was made the central principle of the philosophy by Hegel: development of substance, her consciousness and knowledge is same.

The second class of monads differs in that its elements have feelings and sozertsaniye. Are peculiar to the most undeveloped representatives of this class passive, i.e. subconscious and semi-conscious, vague contemplation. At Leibniz the rustle, hardly audible for us published by the falling grain of sand and weak noise of coastal waves are favourite examples of those. But it means that vague perceptions, according to Leibniz, are available not only for the lowest, but also for the developed monads (souls). The main structure of the second class - animals. Their activity mainly of a stradateln, is passive; the consciousness is not peculiar to them.